Contraceptive Discontinuation: A One-Year Follow-Up Study of Female Reversible Method Users in Urban Honduras [sr-08-46]
This study examines women's contraceptive use prospectively over a one-year period in four urban areas of Honduras. It goes beyond previous research by assessing the relative importance of and interactions among the family planning service environment, women's individual characteristics, and their experience with side effects on contraception continuation or discontinuation. The findings from this study complement the Honduras Encuesta Nacional de Demografía y Salud 2005-2006 (ENDESA), a cross-sectional survey sample of women aged 15-49 that includes retrospective and current measures of contraceptive use. The present study followed a panel of women recruited from family planning service sites who, at the time of the first interview, were either continuing or new users of a temporary (reversible) contraceptive method. The majority of women who switched methods during the study did so because of side effects or health concerns with their baseline method. Headaches were the most common side effect experienced by women, followed by the lack of menses, and uterine pain.
Also available in Spanish http://www.cpc.unc.edu/measure/publications/sr-08-46-es
Violence Against Women and Girls: A Compendium of Monitoring and Evaluation Indicators [ms-08-30-en]
This compendium was developed with the help of many individuals. At the request of the USAID East Africa Regional Mission with the Inter-agency Gender Working Group (USAID), MEASURE Evaluation developed this compendium in collaboration with a technical advisory group (TAG) of experts. The goal was to develop a set of monitoring and evaluation indicators for program managers, organizations, and policy makers who are working to address violence against women and girls (VAW/G) at the individual, community, district/provincial and national levels in developing countries. An extensive literature review was undertaken to document any indicators in the field that were already being used. A steering committee of experts met over a period of several months to select members of the TAG, develop a framework for the compendium and generate an initial list of indicators for wider input from the TAG.
Linkages and Referrals within AIDS Care and Treatment National Service Delivery Systems, Swaziland [sr-08-45-en]
Appropriate and timely referral for HIV/AIDS treatment is essential for a functioning health system. Unfortunately, it is often among the weakest components of a system. In Swaziland, as antiretroviral treatment and other treatment services are rolled out, identifying and addressing barriers to a strong referral system is critical to ensure access to services and continuity of care for people living with HIV and AIDS. This study, which is one facet of a phased plan to improve the national referral system, has gathered evidence as to how referral is understood by key stakeholders. The information is intended for use by decision makers at the Ministry of Health and Social Welfare and other stakeholders to create and implement policies and procedures that improve care and support for people living with HIV and AIDS.
Impact of Oportunidades on Contraceptive Methods Use in Adolescent and Young Adult Women Living in Rural Areas, 1997-2000 [wp-08-109-en]
Oportunidades is a social program run by the Mexican government that seeks to improve education, health, nutrition, and living conditions of those living in extreme poverty. People supported by the program attend monthly health talks, which include information on contraceptive methods. Reduction in fertility, especially among youths, is deemed crucial to accomplish the program's goals. We analyze information on contraceptive method use among young women from the Oportunidades evaluation surveys conducted in the years 1997 to 2000. We present intention to treat effect estimates, and other estimates obtained by several statistical procedures performed to evaluate the impact of the program on contraceptive methods use by young women. To accomplish this, we took advantage of the experimental design setting that was implemented to evaluate the program in rural areas. We found that among women 20- to 24-years-old, the program increased the prevalence of contraceptive methods use by 5 to 10 percentage points after two years of exposure to the program. The impact appears to have occurred mostly to those with the lowest socio-economic level.
2006 Bangladesh Urban Health Survey [tr-08-68]
Nearly all of the global population growth in the next three decades will occur in urban areas, primarily as a massive migration occurs from the rural areas of middle and lower-income societies to their cities. Many, if not most of these migrants, who are generally possessed of low human and financial capital on arrival in the city, will settle in slums, the areas of concentrated poverty and environmental vulnerability that are already a dominant feature of much of the urban landscape of the developing world. Bangladesh will be no exception to these trends. The growth in her urban population is set to outstrip by a wide margin that in rural areas. Moreover, the urban growth already experienced in recent decades demonstrates that slums will likely be an increasingly important feature of urban existence in Bangladesh. Anticipating these developments, USAID and the Government of Bangladesh tasked a research team based in Bangladesh and the United States (at the University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill) with conducting a survey designed to obtain a broad health profile of the urban population of Bangladesh. The ultimate fruit of this effort is the 2006 Urban Health Survey, a rich, microlevel health-interview survey of communities, households, and individuals throughout the city corporations and a sample of district municipalities.