Percent of women and men who have heard of at least one LAPM


Percent of women and men of reproductive age (aged 15-49 years) who can name at least one of the four long-acting or permanent methods (LAPMs): IUD, implant, female sterilization or male sterilization.

This indicator is calculated as:

(Number of women and men surveyed who can name at least one LAPM / Total number of men and women surveyed) x 100

Additional calculations:

  • (Number of women and men who named IUD / Number of men and women surveyed) x 100
  • (Number of women and men who named implants / Number of men and women surveyed) x 100
  • (Number of women and men who named female sterilization / Number of men and women surveyed) x 100
  • (Number of women and men who named male sterilization / Number of men and women surveyed) x 100


To obtain the data required, an interviewer can ask the respondent which LAPMs she has heard of, or it can be asked in a written survey. The method of questioning will depend on the literacy level of the population of women surveyed. Also, respondents may know of implants or IUD, but may not realize or recall that they are long-acting methods.  Thus, interviewers may ask the respondent to list all the family planning (FP) methods s/he knows of, which may or may not include LAPMs. Programs may be interested in knowing the respondents’ age, marital status and parity.

Demographic Health Survey (DHS) or other population-based survey

While growing awareness of methods is not sufficient to expand use of contraceptives in general or of any specific method, it is an essential component of vibrant FP programs. This indictor highlights whether that essential component exists in a country or site.  Knowledge of FP methods is generally high in developing countries, but data show that knowledge of LAPMs is often lower than for other methods. This indicator will support program design by indicating whether an enhanced focus on behavior change communication (BCC) is needed, particularly if a program has been trying to promote a particular LAPM or increase their use.


Knowing a particular method exists does not always imply that an individual has sufficient understanding of how the method works, where it is available, or the attitude towards the method, (myths and rumors can create negative impressions).  Likewise, the indicator does not ask where a respondent may have heard of a specific method or how they know about it.

Not all FP programs offer all methods, so the question may not be helpful to understanding programmatic strengths and weaknesses.

long-acting/permanent methods (LAPM)


Differential knowledge about LAPMs between men and women may reflect differential access to formal and informal communication channels, such as newspapers, radio, TV, social networks, etc. Any significant differences by sex should be assessed to support BCC program design.