Gender and HIV Key Populations: A Summary of Evidence-Based Interventions

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Author(s): MEASURE Evaluation

Year: 2019

Gender and HIV Key Populations: A Summary of Evidence-Based Interventions Abstract:

A gender analysis is an important planning tool for the development of effective HIV interventions to reach the 95-95-95 targets of the United States President’s Emergency Plan for AIDS Relief (PEPFAR). These goals are that by 2020, 95 percent of all people living with HIV will know their status, 95 percent of all those with diagnosed HIV infection will receive sustained antiretroviral therapy (ART), and 95 percent of all those receiving ART will have viral suppression. Beginning in 2014, PEPFAR guidance for conducting a gender analysis included a focus on these populations key to the epidemic: men who have sex with men (MSM), people who use drugs, transgender people, and sex workers (PEPFAR, 2014).

Mapping to “actionable” programmatic recommendations based on the findings of a gender analysis is arguably the most important and difficult step for PEPFAR operating units. For key populations, gender is but one component of their identity that contributes to social marginalization and increased vulnerability to acquiring the virus. HIV-related interventions for key populations have typically emphasized human rights more broadly, rather than specific gender-related barriers to reaching the targets. For this reason, it can be difficult for PEPFAR teams to design interventions that deal with the gender-related factors identified in their gender analyses. To address this need, MEASURE Evaluation—a project funded by the United States Agency for International Development and PEPFAR—conducted a literature review of HIV interventions acting on a gender-related factor for key populations. This brief summarizes the methods used for the review and presents a table that lists HIV interventions addressing a gender-related factor, organized by key population.