Number of people reached with individual or small group level community HIV-prevention interventions

How to use this indicator

HIV prevention interventions at the community level are designed to improve HIV-related knowledge and decrease risk behaviors. These interventions can change HIV-related knowledge and attitudes and reduce sexual risk-taking behaviors, especially if the behaviors are relevant to the specific health problems and the interventions have beneficial outcomes for the populations targeted. This indicator derives from the PEPFAR indicator KP_PREV but extends beyond key populations to include vulnerable children, their families, and others vulnerable to HIV (i.e., adolescents and pregnant and lactating women). These data provide information on the total number of people that have received individual-level and/or small group interventions during the reporting period. This indicator does not track HIV testing services or referral to HIV testing services, because these two data elements were crafted into distinct indicators in this collection (see HIV testing here and referral to HIV testing here) and are essential, distinct components that HIV programs incorporating community approaches must monitor.

This indicator tracks people who are HIV-positive and negative who have received at least one of the prevention activities listed below, at the community level. The goals of prevention activities are to keep HIV-positive people mentally and physically healthy; prevent further transmission of HIV; and involve people living with HIV in prevention, leadership, and advocacy activities.

Prevention Interventions can include, but are not limited to the following:

  • Targeted information, education, and communication
  • Outreach
  • Empowerment
  • Condoms, lubricant accompanying individual/group counseling/sensitization activities
  • HIV risk reduction support
  • Behavior change communication messaging (sketch, play, film, chat, or interview)

Numerator

Number of adults and children provided with any individual and/or small group-level HIV-prevention intervention designed for the target population at the community level

Note: Number of households is alternative language for this indicator, especially for OVC programs, although tracking the number of people is ideal given the potential for variation of targeted messaging required to address needs of the various members in each household (e.g., adolescent-friendly messaging).

Unit of measure

Number

Calculation

Sum results across reporting period

Method of measurement

This indicator tracks the number of people who have received any kind of individual or small group prevention intervention at the community level. It should exclude people who have received a pamphlet or flyer during outreach activities, unless they also received counseling or targeted information, education, and communication. This indicator should include people who have received counseling from a community worker at a household as well as community sensitization activities provided by community-based organizations, or even health providers, if the activity occurred outside of the facility level. Although referrals are often made after sensitization or outreach activities, referrals for HIV testing and other services should not be counted towards this indicator.

People should not be included in interventions if they are not old enough to understand messaging or if messaging conflicts with what is accepted by their caregiver; messaging and activities should be age appropriate and should only be provided with caregiver consent. Community workers should be trained to provide counseling and messaging that are both age-appropriate and friendly, and they should be trained to discuss sensitive topics in the context of cultural and religious norms. 

Data source

This information is often tracked during behavior change communication activities at the community level. Counseling is typically provided at the community level, on a broad range of topics, to increase knowledge on HIV and HIV-related topics, such as HIV, PMTCT, tuberculosis (TB), safe sex, antenatal care (ANC), nutrition, male circumcision, health facility delivery, family planning, condom use, gender-based violence, STIs, child education, early childhood development, child wellbeing, children’s rights, agricultural information, and household sanitation and hygiene. Forms used to collect this information include vulnerable children or household/caregiver service forms, HIV activity reports for CBOs, household assessment and monitoring forms, and adult/child counseling session forms.

Disaggregation

  • Age (<1 year, 1–4 years, 5–9 years, 10–14 years, and 15–19 years for children; 20–24 years, 25–49 years, and 50+ years for adults)
  • Sex
  • Pregnancy/lactation status
  • Key population type (sex workers, transgender people, men who have sex with men, people who inject drugs)
  • HIV status
  • Intervention type as applicable (outreach, sensitization, group counseling, one-on-one counseling, behavior change communication, peer volunteer counseling, information, film/interview/chat/sketch, and informed flyer/brochure distribution)
  • Intervention topic (HIV, PMTCT, TB, safe sex, ANC, nutrition, male circumcision, health facility delivery, family planning, condom use, GBV, STDs, child education, early childhood development, child wellbeing, children’s rights, agricultural information, household sanitation and hygiene)

Data quality considerations

A person who received interventions multiple times during the reporting period should only be counted once for this indicator. It is important to pay attention to the reporting period to avoid double counting people (quarterly versus annual reporting). If resources allow, everyone can be provided with a unique identifier to help programs track the frequency, diversity, and reach of contact with people over time. The total number of people reached with HIV prevention interventions should be equal to the sum of each type of disaggregate. People who fall into more than one category of key population or pregnancy/lactation status should only count a person in one category for the total. This indicator does not track the quality or intensity of messaging and activities, or knowledge gained, or behavior changed owing to messaging and activities. Programs may also consider tracking the number of times specific people are exposed to messaging to ensure that beneficiaries are provided with enough information to make informed decisions.

Reporting frequency

Community workers should collect this information regularly but monitor progress monthly with support from their supervisors. The indicator should be reported on a semiannual basis.

Data element

Reach of community level HIV-prevention interventions

Category

HIV Prevention, Key Populations, Home-Based Care, Prevention of Mother-to-Child Transmission, Vulnerable Children

References

The United States President’s Emergency Plan for AIDS Relief (PEPFAR) (2018). Monitoring, evaluation, and reporting (MER 2.0) indicator reference guide updated release (Version 2.2). Washington, DC: PEPFAR. Retrieved from https://www.pepfar.gov/documents/organization/263233.pdf

Ibrahim, S., & Sidani, S. (2014). Community-based HIV prevention intervention in developing countries: A Systematic review. Retrieved from https://www.hindawi.com/journals/anurs/2014/174960/

Kennedy, C., Medley, A., Sweat, M., & O’Reilly, K. (2011). Behavioural interventions for HIV-positive prevention in developing countries: A systematic review and meta-analysis. Retrieved from http://www.who.int/bulletin/volumes/88/8/09-068213/en/

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