Bangladesh is one of the world’s most densely populated countries, which, combined with a high poverty rate, contributes to a number of health challenges, including a high rate of maternal mortality.
Bangladesh is also rapidly urbanizing. According to United Nations estimates, while the rural population is expected to peak at 105 million people in 2016 and then decline, the urban population will grow from its current (2015) level of 54 million people to 81.4 million in 2029, an increase of 50 percent in 14 years.
With population shifts come changes in health demographics. Bangladesh has a long history of conducting household surveys to inform its population, health, and nutrition portfolio and a large component of MEASURE Evaluation’s work has addressed sampling design, implementation, and data analysis for several of these surveys.
Bangladesh has made impressive progress in reducing fertility and mortality and improving health and education conditions in recent decades. But growing urban poverty is an area in urgent need of research and of new policy measures if the country is to meet the national goals of poverty reduction.
Despite the recognized importance of examining intra-urban inequalities there is little quality research on the subject. Demographic and Health Surveys provide data on urban-rural differences, including data on important health indicators, but do not provide information on intra-urban differences. For this reason, in 2006 the first Urban Health Survey (UHS 2006) was conducted with separate sampling for slum and non-slum areas within cities to identify the health challenges among and use of services by different groups. The 2013 survey is a follow-up study to examine changes in health and service utilization among the urban population, with explicit attention to examining the differences between slum and non-slum groups. Such data provides important information to guide health planning, policies, and programs.
The Mayer Hashi Large-Scale Program to Increase Use of Long-Acting Reversible Contraceptives and Permanent Methods in Bangladesh: Explaining the Disappointing Results. An Outcome and Process Evaluation